Incidents of October, 1956. When the two colonial powers, England and France, attacked Egypt together with Israel. And pushed the world towards another new war after World War II. It is recorded in history as ‘Suez Crisis’ or ‘Suez Crisis’.
Why was this attack done?
Why did the allies become contradictory in this war?
What was the role of the Soviet Union and America in it?
Why is America angry with France and England?
Israel-France-England joint attack on Egypt.
Why did Israel attack Egypt?
Let’s try to find out in Pro-Bangla.
Before knowing this incident, you need to know the history of Suez Canal. Only then will it be easily understood. The history of this waterway connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean dates back almost four thousand years. Construction of the modern Suez Canal began in 1859. It was credited to the French diplomat ‘Ferdinand de Lespaul’.
It took 10 years to build the Suez Canal. This 120 mile long waterway shortened the route from Europe to Asia.
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Earlier, ships from Europe used to cross the Atlantic Ocean and come around the continent of Africa to Asia. It took 8 to 10 days. But now London’s sea route from the Arabian Sea has reduced to 5500 miles. Now the Red Sea can be reached in a short time by crossing the Suez Canal through the Mediterranean Sea. Commercial ships ply all over Asia from the Red Sea. Now both time and distance are reduced. Along with that, the transportation cost has decreased.
This canal was in a private ownership.
The name of the company is “Suez Canal Company”. Most of its shares were held by Egypt and France. An agreement was made with the king of Egypt during its construction. According to the treaty, it will remain under French control for 99 years. It will then be handed over to Egypt.
It was officially opened for navigation on 17 November 1869. In 1875, King Ismail Pasha of Egypt sold the Egyptian share of the Suez Canal to the British to pay off debts. That was 44 percent of the ownership of the Suez Canal. Thus Egypt lost its full rights over the Suez Canal.
An interesting point here is that the
British strongly opposed the construction of the Suez Canal for their own interests. But after its construction, most of their commercial ships began to pass through this route. They also wanted to own it. Then that opportunity got through the purchase of shares in 1875.
Egypt lost its independence in 1882. The British made Egypt a colony and control of the Suez Canal passed to England.
An agreement was made in 1888 to avoid future problems with the canal. According to the treaty it was declared a neutral zone and all countries were given the right to use it.
But the reality was completely different. Since Egypt was a British colony, they profited a lot through this canal. During World War I, he allowed only Allied ships to use the canal. which is a breach of contract.
Egypt gained independence from the
British in 1922. But British influence in Egypt was not completely over. British troops remained in Egypt after independence. The Egyptian people and government were very angry about this matter. As a result, an agreement was signed between Egypt and England in 1936. It is called “Anglo-Egyptian Treaty”. According to the treaty, British troops could only be there for the security of the Suez Canal. The remaining troops must be removed from Egypt within twenty years.
In 1952 a revolution broke out in
Egypt. This revolution was led by Jamal Abdul Nasser. In 1954 he became the Prime Minister of Egypt. He was staunchly opposed to foreign powers in Egypt. He promised the people to free Egypt from the interference of foreign powers. He also promised to build the “Aswan Dam” on the Nile.
Egypt and Israel had bad relations at that time. Egypt prohibits Israeli ships from passing through the Straits of Tiran. In this situation, Egypt asks the United States for arms. But America is a close friend of Israel. So America will not give any weapons that are a threat to Israel. However, America was willing to give loans for the construction of ‘Aswan Dam’ on the Nile. Even England wanted to lend.
Jamal Abdul Nasser became angry with
America for not providing weapons. So he got the modern arms deal from Yugoslavia. Since Yugoslavia was an ally of the Soviet Union, the United States and its ally England refused to grant the loan. Jamal Abdul Nasser had no choice in this situation. Dam construction is also very necessary. So he announced on July 26, 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal and use the profits from it to build the dam.
It was a very scary and powerful move for Egypt. It was bound to have some kind of reaction. As a result of Egypt’s decision, France and England became sleepless. Because these two countries share the Suez Canal. In addition, oil from the Middle East reached Europe through this waterway and European factories operated. France and England now have the means to stop driving. This is a question of life and death